Edward Glover

Edward Glover

Grace Pailthorpe

Grace Pailthorpe

JA Hadfield

James Arthur Hadfield

Domenico Di Ceglie

Domenico Di Ceglie

Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion

Jessica Yakeley

Dr Jessica Yakeley

Stanley Ruszczynski

Stanley Ruszczynski

Richard Davies

Richard Davies

Rob Hale

Dr Rob Hale

Donald Campbell

Donald Campbell

Chris Lucas

Chris Lucas

Dr Mervyn Glasser

Dr Mervyn Glasser

Adam Limentani

Adam Limentani

Dr David Eder

Dr David Eder

Dr Aubrey Lewis 1942

Dr Aubrey Lewis

Mr Adrian and Mrs Karen Stephen

Mr Adrian and Mrs Karen Stephen

Kate Friedländer née Frankl

Kate Friedländer née Frankl

Marjorie Franklin

Marjorie Franklin

Melitta Schmideberg née Klein

Melitta Schmideberg née Klein

Barbara Low

Barbara Low

Emmanuel Miller

Emanuel Miller

Hermann Mannheim

Hermann Mannheim

Estela Welldon

Estela Welldon

John Rickman

John Rickman

Edward Glover

Edward Glover (1888-1972) was a founder of the Portman Clinic, its chairman for 28 years and a key figure in the early days of the British Psycho-Analytic Society. He is perhaps less well known than he should be and this is because of the antagonistic part he played in the Controversial Discussions between Anna Freud and Melanie Klein, which led to his resignation from the British Psycho-Analytic Society. He does, however, remain a major figure in forensic psychiatry and criminology, and founded the British Journal of Criminology and the British Society of Criminology.

Born in a small Scottish village, he was the third and youngest son of a country schoolmaster. He hated his early schooling and religious instruction, but on entering secondary school, under his father’s direction, he threw himself into his work matriculating at sixteen, starting medical training, and qualifying MB, ChB with distinction at the age of twenty-one.

He was appointed House Physician at Glasgow Royal Infirmary and learned to apply scientific method to clinical practice and research. Four years later he became Senior Resident at the Glasgow Children’s Hospital. Edward’s medical career was greatly influenced by his oldest brother, James, who had moved to London to join the Institute of Psycho-analysis with Drs. Jessie Murray and Julia Turner.

Together the two brothers developed an interest in Freud’s psychonalysis and in 1920 went to Berlin to undergo training analyses with Karl Abraham. Edward returned to London in the fall of 1921 becoming an associate member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and a full member the following year. James became very close to Ernest Jones, acting as his right hand man, but died in 1926. Edward took over many of his commitments and his influence in the British Society became second only to Jones.

It was through the British Society that Glover most likely met Grace Pailthorpe, who had begun training under Jones in 1922. Throughout the 1920s Grace Pailthorpe was also working with Maurice Hamblin Smith, Britain’s first authorised ‘criminologist’, and produced a study of women offenders at Birmingham Prison that was highly influenced by Freud’s ‘Criminals from a sense of guilt’ (1916). However, when she submitted her manuscript of Studies in the Psychology of Delinquency to the Medical Research Council, its publication was held up. Glover, who also had an interest in criminology, intervened, behind the scenes, to ensure this important work was published.

On the back of this publication Grace Pailthorpe founded The Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals in 1931, which changed its name to the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency (ISTD) in 1932, at the suggestion of Edward Glover.

Almost from the outset Glover quickly took on a major role in the organisation, helping to gather respected Vice-Presidents that included: Freud, Jung, Adler, Cyril Burt, HG Wells, Havelock Ellis, Julian Huxley and Laurence Housman as well a range of high ranking figures from religion and  the nobility. While the campaigning side of the organisation built up a head of momentum, Glover also began to develop its clinical side and on 18 September 1933 the ISTD opened The Psychopathic Clinic, which became the Portman Clinic when it joined the NHS in 1948. When it opened few psychoanalysts had begun to develop practical psychoanalytic thinking and application to the field of criminality and delinquency. From its inception, the Portman Clinic has had as its purpose assessment, treatment, research and education. It was and remains a unique institution.

Throughout the 30s Edward Glover campaigned hard around criminality and delinquency, managing a strong press campaign that raised both his and the organisation’s profiles. Within the British Psycho-analytic Society his position was also strengthening and as Ernest jones prepared to retire Glover positioned himself to take over.

Then came the Controversial Discussions. There was a theoretical split between Freud and Melanie Klein. While the Freuds were in central Europe and Klein was in London it was possible to keep a lid on these disagreements, but following the annexation of Austria, many European analysts, including Sigmund and Anna Freud, escaped to London. During World War 2, to try to resolve their differences Ernest Jones organised a debate. In the event Jones was not able to attend and ceded the chair to Glover. By this time Glover had established himself as an eloquent heresy-hunter – against Jung, Rank, Klein and others.

The debates, which took place during the Blitz, were often so heated that they failed to heed the air raid sirens. Glover’s chairing lacked impartiality and the result was huge divisions in the British Society. Although his aim was to keep the Society strictly Freudian the end result was to open up a space where Freudians, Kleinians and British Independents had equal footing. So although it was not his intention, the rich post-war tradition of independent analytic thought in Britain has to be considered part of his legacy.

In post-war Britain the ISTD continued to be able to influence the government and judicial system. For example, in 1954 Edward Glover and Denis Carroll presented to the Wolfenden Committee on behalf of the Portman Clinic and argued that tolerance and not treatment were the main solution to homosexuality and that homosexuality per se should not be treated as a crime.

In the post-war period Glover also continued to write influentially, and his output included text books like The Technique Of Psycho-Analysis (1955) through to his important contributions to the study of psychopathy and crime as reflected in The Roots of Crime (1960).

He died in 1972, at the age of 84.

Author: Glenn Gossling 2020

:A Brief Introduction to the History of the Portman Clinic:

:The Portman Clinic – an historical sketch

Grace Pailthorpe

Grace Pailthorpe had many lives. She was a surgeon during the First World War, a psychoanalyst who studied under Ernest Jones, a criminologist, a campaigner for reform, founder of the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency (the clinical wing of which became the Portman Clinic) and a surrealist artist, praised by Andre Breton and now included in the collection at Tate Modern.

Grace Pailthorpe was born on 29 July 1883 in Sutton, Surrey. Both of her parents belonged to the Plymouth Brethren, a conservative, evangelical Christian movement and she grew up in what she described as ‘an atmosphere of strictest Puritanism’.

In 1908 Grace Pailthorpe enrolled at the Royal College of Music in London and began studying to be a concert pianist. Then in September of 1908 she applied to study medicine at the London (Royal Free Hospital) School of Medicine for Women. In 1914 she was one of only four women to qualify. Grace Pailthorpe qualified as MB BS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) at the University of Durham, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle at the age of 31.

Shortly after the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914 Grace Pailthorpe decided to volunteer, went to the War Office in London and filled out her application, but was rejected on grounds of her sex. Undeterred, she volunteered for the French Red Cross and in January 1915 she started work as a surgeon with the Bromley-Martin Hospital Unit in the Haute-Marne District in France.

It is likely that this is where Grace Pailthorpe would have first come into contact with victims of shell-shock. As a fluent French speaker she might have come across French works on psychoanalysis at that time. Certainly her work after the war indicated that she was already familiar with works such as Janet’s The Major Symptoms of Hysteria.

Her active service saw her in charge of a flying ambulance in Salonika as well as a period at the Military Hospital of Val-de-Grâce in Paris.

After the war Grace Pailthorpe travelled extensively abroad, working as a general practitioner in Australia and New Zealand, including working as a medical officer at a gold-mining company. On her return to England in 1922 she began psychoanalytic training at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis under Ernest Jones.

In 1922 Grace Pailthorpe also started working with Maurice Hamblin Smith, Britain’s first authorised ‘criminologist’, at whose suggestion she began her study of women offenders at Birmingham Prison. Grace Pailthorpe’s work during the 1920s was to make her one of the leading figures in English psychoanalytic criminology between the wars. The idea to set up The Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals was first aired informally with a friend who was a lawyer, but on 22 July 1931 Grace Pailthorpe, Ernest T. Jensen (who acted as Chair), Victor Neuburg and Runia Tharpe officially formed The Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals, then in 1932 the name of the organisation was changed to the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency at the suggestion of Edward Glover. On 18 September 1933 they opened their clinical wing: The Psychopathic Clinic, which became the Portman Clinic when it joined the NHS in 1948.

Author: Glenn Gossling 2020

:The early life of Grace Pailthorpe:

:The Portman Clinic: an historical sketch:

:A brief introduction to the history of the Portman:;

James Arthur Hadfield

JA Hadfield (1882–1967) was a key figure in the early days of the Tavi. He was a founding member of staff and became Director of Studies in 1934. JA Hadfield born in 1882 on Loyalty Island in the South Pacific, where his father was a missionary and his mother an anthropologist. He studied at Oxford University and did his medical degrees at Edinburgh University, graduating MB, ChB in 1916. During World War 1 he served in the Royal Navy before transferring to the Royal Army Medical Corps working as a neurologist treating shell shock. After the war JA Hadfield joined Hugh Crichton-Miller, first at Bowden House and then became one of the seven founding staff members of the Tavistock Clinic. From the start, JA Hadfield was more active as a teacher and lecturer than a therapist, and influenced the theoretical orientation and teaching of the Tavi to a considerable extent. He lectured at London University for almost 30 years and was director of studies at the Tavistock Clinic for thirteen years. Under JR Rees’s direction, with JA Hadfield organising education, the period from 1932 to 1939 was the Tavi’s greatest period of expansion in treatment, training, external lecture courses and in numbers of staff and trainees. In 1931 JA Hadfield was a founding member of the Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency (ISTD) and helped set up the Portman Clinic in 1933. When World War 2 came JA Hadfield joined the Royal Army Medical Corps working with Emmanuel Miller. At the end of the war, in 1945, JA Hadfield resigned from his position at the Tavistock Clinic. HV Dicks succeeded him as Training Secretary. JA Hadfield died suddenly at his home on 4 September 1967, aged 84.

Author: Glenn Gossling 2020

:long-read:

Domenico Di Ceglie

Domenico Di Ceglie MD, DipPsychiat (It), FRCPysch, has worked for the Tavistock and Portman since 1979. He is the founder and former director of the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) at the Tavistock & Portman NHS Foundation Trust. This is the UK’s only gender service for children and young people. He is a lifetime honorary consultant child and adolescent psychiatrist at the Tavistock and Portman; an honorary senior lecturer, Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology at University College London; Docente, Scuola di Specializzazione in Psicologia Clinica at La Sapienza University in Rome (2015–2018); honorary doctor of education (honoris causa) at the University of East London, and emeritus member of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH).

Domenico was born on 17 January 1947 in Cassano Murge (Bari, Italy). His father was a well-loved GP (Medico Condotto) by the population he served in the small town of Cassano and after his death they named a street after him. His mother helped with the administration of his GP practice.

Domenico went to the Liceo Scientifico Alessandro Volta in Milan and received his Diploma di ‘Maturita` Scientifica’ in 1965. In 1972 he completed a degree with honours (110/110 cum Laude) in Medicine and Surgery at the University of Perugia. Then in 1976 he completed a Diploma of Specialisation in Psychiatry (an EEC recognised Specialist Qualification) at the University of Perugia.

During this period he also held a number of posts in Italy. He was a Medical Officer at the Institute of Industrial Medicine of ENPI from 1972 to 1973. He was ‘Assistente Universitario’ (University Assistant) in the Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases (Clinica Delle Malattie Nervose e Mentali)  at the University of Perugia from 1973 to 1974. Then between 1974 and 1976 he became a lecturer at the same university.

In 1976 Domenico moved to England. Initially he worked as a Registrar in Psychiatry, at the Central Middlesex Hospital in London, before being appointed to a residential service for adolescents at the Northgate Clinic, in 1977.

In June 1979 Domenico joined the Tavistock Clinic as Senior Registrar of the Conjoint Training Programme in Child, Family and Adolescent Psychiatry. As part of this he worked at the Hill End Adolescent Unit in St Albans and then moved to the Tavistock Clinic’s Adolescent Department. During this time he also continued with his education, becoming a Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in 1984 and completing the Higher Training in Child, Adolescent and Family Psychiatry at the Tavistock Clinic. In 1985 he became Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist at Croydon CAMHS and subsequently in 1994 at the Adolescent Department of the Tavistock Clinic.

It was in the early 1980s that Domenico had his first encounter with a teenager affirming to be a boy in a female body who had taken three overdoses and was very distressed. At the time, Domenico knew very little about the subject and decided to see this teenager to offer help to alleviate the distress and also expand his training experience. After an initial assessment he began a series of psychotherapy sessions with this young person who at the time wished to be addressed with female pronouns. Very little happened verbally in these sessions, but a lot seemed to occur in a nonverbal way.  Domenico became very curious about this young person’s experience and started to research the literature and found that the existing material on the subject was not helpful in better understanding this young person’s experience. After two years of exploratory therapy the sessions  came to an end as this young person had to move to another town for work, but left a legacy: In one of her last sessions she said that perhaps this form of help had come too late, and that her parents should have been aware of how she was feeling by the way she behaved. She wondered why they had not sought help for her when she was a child. This inspired Domenico to think about creating a service for children and adolescents facing gender identity issues.

Soon afterwards he began a workshop in Croydon, with two or three other members of staff, who were also interested in this area of work. It was this experience that convinced Domenico that there was a need for a service for children around gender identity development.

In 1989 he founded a specialist service for children, adolescents, and families facing gender identity issues in the Department of Child Psychiatry at St. George’s Hospital, London. It operated one afternoon per fortnight and was staffed by Domenico and three others.

In 1992 the Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) organised the first international conference on gender identity issues in children and adolescents at St George’s Hospital. There were presentations by eminent clinicians and researchers at the time. Domenico presented a paper that outlined the approach taken by the GIDS.

For Domenico, altering the ‘gender identity disorder’ was not a primary therapeutic objective, rather the primary objectives were the developmental processes that had been negatively affected. What was important was targeting developmental and family processes, maintaining an open mind to what solution an individual would find to their conflicts and assisting both the child and family in the search for the best solution. He had started to regard the experience of these young people as developing new identities which received a legal recognition, in adults, years later.

This approach produced some controversy in the discussions that followed. And it still does.

However, this model has remained core to the way that the GIDS works and has evolved, particularly in relation to the physical interventions that have since become available, but as a service the GIDS can still look at Domenico’s therapeutic aims and abide by them. Similarly, the original ‘network model of care’ offering a holistic approach which involves close and enduring collaboration of the GIDS with local services such as GPs, schools, social services and other appropriate agencies of support has continued to be adopted over the years.

In 1996 the GIDS transferred from St George’s to the Tavistock and Portman Trust and was initially based in the Portman Clinic building. The work of GIDS generated curiosity and interest in other members of the Tavistock and Portman staff, but also controversy.

In November 1996 the GIDS organised an international conference at the Tavistock Centre on the theme of ‘Atypical Gender Identity Development and Mental Health’. Papers from the conference, with some additional original contributions, were collected into the book A Stranger in My Own Body (1998). A further international conference was organised in 2000 where therapeutic models of management of children and adolescents with gender identity issues were debated, and Milton Diamond presented a paper summarising his lifetime’s work on the psychosocial management of children with intersex conditions (now DSD).

Over the years the number of children and teenagers referred to the service gradually increased. Staff and users contributed creatively to the development of the service. On one occasion a mother of a child with gender identity problems, who was involved in a dispute over contact with her ex-partner, asked Domenico if she could meet other parents facing similar issues. This led to the establishment of group work for parents and eventually the formation of the self-help organisation known as ‘Mermaids’.

In 2009 the GIDS became nationally funded and in March 2009 Domenico retired as director.

The GIDS now provides a multidisciplinary service countrywide, offering consultation, training, and research. Since Domenico’s retirement the service has continued to expand and at an accelerated rate. Between 2012 and 2017 the annual number of referrals expanded almost tenfold from 209 to over two thousand. In 2017 the Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic, the oldest gender identity service for adults in the UK, also joined the Tavistock and Portman. With both an adult and the only children and young people’s service being based at the Tavistock and Portman, the Trust is now in a position of national, and arguably global, leadership in this area.

As well as his work in the area of gender identity, Domenico has also been honorary senior lecturer at The Royal Free and University College Medical School in London; visiting professor in adolescent psychiatry at the University of Perugia, Italy (1992–1996); a psychotherapist at the Lincoln Centre for Psychotherapy and a member of the Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists. He has been the organising tutor of an MA course accredited by the University of East London in adolescent mental health for professionals. He has widely published papers about his work and co-edited a book, A Stranger in My Own Body—Atypical Gender Identity Development and Mental Health (Karnac, London, 1998). He was highly commended in the Health and Social Care Awards, 2004. He gives frequent lectures worldwide. Recently he presented papers on gender identity at the Freud Conference in Melbourne, at The International Journal of Psychoanalysis Centenary Conference in London and at a study day on Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspectives in Gender Diversity and Sexualities organised by the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) in Brussels.

Author: Glenn Gossling 2020

Selected Bibliography

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2018) ‘Autonomy and decision-making in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria’. In: Justice for children and families: A developmental perspective. Royal College of Psychiatrists, Cambridge, pp. 145-153. ISBN 9781108457699

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2015) ‘Clinical management of gender dysphoria in adolescents’. In: Management of gender dysphoria: A multidisciplinary approach. Springer, London, pp. 61-72. ISBN 9788847056954

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2014) ‘Gender dysphoria in young people’. In: Clinical topics in child and adolescent psychiatry. The Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, pp. 349-363. ISBN 9781909726178

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2014) ‘Care for gender-dysphoric children’. In: Gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development: Progress in care and knowledge. Focus of Sexuality Research. Springer, New York, pp. 151-169. ISBN 9781461474401

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2018) ‘The use of metaphors in understanding atypical gender identity development and its psychosocial impact’. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 44 (1). pp. 5-28. ISSN 0075-417X

Skagerberg, Elin and Di Ceglie, Domenico and Carmichael, Polly (2015) ‘Brief report: Autistic features in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. ISSN Print 0162-3257; Online 1573-3432

Di Ceglie, Domenico and Skagerberg, Elin and Baron-Cohen, Simon and Auyeung, Bonnie (2014) ‘Empathising and systemising in adolescents with gender dysphoria’. Opticon1826, 16 (6).

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2012) ‘Identity and inability to mourn in The Skin I Live In’. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 93 (5). pp. 1308-1313. ISSN 0020-7578

Di Ceglie, Domenico and Jones, Rebecca M and Wheelwright, Sally and Farrell, Krista and Martin, Emma and Green, Richard and Baron-Cohen, Simon (2012) ‘Brief report: Female-to-male transsexual people and autistic traits’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42 (2). pp. 301-306. ISSN 0162-3257 (Print) 1573-3432 (Online)

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2012) ‘Response to Alessandra Lemma – APP Lecture. Research off the couch: Revisiting the transsexual conundrum’. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 26 (4). pp. 290-293. ISSN 0266-8734

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2009) ‘Engaging young people with atypical gender identity development in therapeutic work: A developmental approach’. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 35 (1). pp. 3-12. ISSN 1469-9370

Di Ceglie, Domenico (2008) ‘Working at the edge: S’engager dans un travail thérapeutique avec des jeunes ayant un développement atypique de l’identité de genre’. [Translated Title: ‘Working at the edge: Engaging in therapeutic work with young people with atypical gender identity development’.]. Neuropsychiatrie de l’Enfance et de l’Adolescence, Vol 56(6), Sep, 2008. pp. 398-402., 56 (Sept). pp. 398-402. ISSN 0222-9617 (Print)

:Gender through time

Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) and John Bowlby are the two most famous members of Tavistock Clinic staff. Bion at the Tavi is most famous for his group work, but this was actually just one small brief strand of his work.

Wilfred Bion was born in Muttra in the Punjab and grew up in an Anglo-Indian family. His father was a ‘good shot’ who went big game hunting with King George V and Bion was wrapped in the values of colonialism.

As was customary for the sons of British Government officers of that time, Wilfred Bion was sent to England for his formal education. He found that ‘the cruelty embedded in the school system’ turned him into an ‘accomplished liar’ who could slip neatly into the different codes of behaviour of the establishment.

He finished school in 1915, a year after the start of World War 1. As soon as he left he took the train to London, went to a recruiting office and was devastated to be rejected. His father pulled some strings and in January 1916 he joined the armed forces. After training Wilfred Bion was posted to the 5th Tank Battalion and his first posting was Ypres.

By Christmas that year he had been nominated for a Victoria Cross, which was later reduced to a DSO (Distinguished Service Order) and was one of three surviving members of the company that had embarked just six months before.

After the war, the day after being demobbed Bion went to Oxford University and got in, largely he believed, on his sporting prowess. Although he enjoyed Oxford he was still haunted by his war experiences and night after night he found himself in a nightmare, waking up bathed in sweat.

Not long after qualifying a friend introduced him to the work of Freud. In 1924, when Bion enrolled to study medicine at University College Hospital, he already had it in mind that he would study psychology, but kept it to himself at the interview. At University College Hospital he studied the physiology of the brain under Elliott Smith and began his housemanship as surgical dresser to Wilfred Trotter.

While at UCL Bion also suffered a serious emotional crisis and went into analysis with someone he dubbed doctor ‘Feel it in the Past’ – a ’kindly man’, who kindly allowed him ‘to accumulate a debt’. Bion gained his medical and surgical qualifications in 1930, taking the gold medal for clinical surgery. He then launched himself straight into psychiatric practice.

In 1932 Bion joined the Tavistock Clinic and was initially employed as an assistant doctor without pay. He began training in psychoanalytic psychotherapy under JA Hadfield. Between 1933 and 1935 Bion treated Samuel Becket at the Tavistock Clinic and then in 1935 followed Hadfield to the Portman Clinic, taking up a post at the Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency where he remained until 1940.

In 1937 Bion went to see John Rickman and began training analysis with him, which lasted until September 1939. At the time Rickman was in analysis with Melanie Klein and was highly influenced by her. Bion’s training analysis was brought prematurely to an end by the outbreak of the Second World War, joining the army as a Major. By the spring of 1940 Wilfred Bion was part of a team under his former director at the Tavistock Clinic, JR Rees.

Bion thought that he would be given a senior position at headquarters, but was ‘surprised’, ‘angry and hurt’ when he found himself ‘removed to a lesser post’ assisting with officer selection. In spite of this, his contribution of the ‘leaderless group’ was of huge significance to the experimental War Officer Selection Board and continues to be used to this day.

Again when there was room for promotion Bion found himself overlooked and took it badly. He asked to be transferred to a dismal mental hospital just outside Birmingham, where John Rickman was based. It was here that he and Rickman initiated the Northfield experiment. This was a radical experiment in group analysis that undermined concepts of hierarchy. The pair had not sought permission to do this so just six weeks after starting the experiment both Rickman and Bion were given 48 hours to leave Northfield and report to other postings.

In spite of this, the Northfield experiment has proved to be one of the most influential developments in group therapy and therapeutic communities and was taken up by Tom Main in the second Northfield experiment and at the Cassell hospital after the war.

At the end of the war Bion left the army at the same rank he had entered and returned to the Tavi. Here he took control of the Professional Committee and instituted radical policies of democracy where all senior staff had to be elected to post, founded the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, began further experiments with groups, started another training analysis but this time under Melanie Klein, relocated the Tavi from its temporary war-time location to a new premises at 2 Beaumont Street and re-organised the Tavi to get it ready for joining the NHS, not least by recruiting former military colleagues Jock Sutherland and John Bowlby.

Then in 1948, feeling he didn’t want to work for the state, he resigned. By 1950 he had abandoned his work on groups (though this was picked up by others at the Tavi who ran with it: Eric Miller, Eric Trist, Harold Bridger and went on to develop group relations). Bion began working with psychotic patients and expanding Klein’s concepts. It was during this phase of work that he came up with the idea of containment, or the container contained. This period forms the main body of his work and flows from his analysis with Klein.

Then towards the end of his life he had another creative flowering where he developed an epistemological theory of thinking – as a capacity for engagement with the self and the world, a capacity for self-reflection – the idea that the capacity to bear frustration is an important factor in the function of thinking, because if you can’t bear frustration you can’t think.

Towards the very end of his life Bion returned to his earliest experiences and tried to master the experiences that had shattered him during World War 1 with a series of autobiographical works. He died in Oxford in 1979.

Author: Glenn Gossling 2020

:Leaderless Groups

:Northfield Experiment

Dr Jessica Yakeley

Jessica Yakeley is a consultant psychiatrist in forensic psychotherapy at the Portman Clinic and director of medical education and associate medical director, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust. She is also a fellow of the British Psychoanalytic Society and editor of the journal Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. She has published widely on topics including medical education, violence, risk assessment, prison health, and antisocial personality disorder. She is research lead for the RCPsych Psychotherapy Faculty, and for the British Psychoanalytic Council (BPC). She is currently leading the national development of new services for a multi-site randomised-controlled trial of mentalization-based treatment for antisocial personality disorder as part of the National Personality Disorder Offender Pathways Strategy.

Stanley Ruszczynski

Stanley Ruszczynski is a psychoanalyst with the British Psychoanalytic Association, and a psychoanalytic couple psychotherapist with the British Society of Couple Psychotherapists and Counsellors. He is a consultant adult psychotherapist in the Portman Clinic having joined the staff in 1997, and was Clinic director between 2005-2016. During the years of his directorship, the Clinic established a dedicated research post and became one of the main placements available for the child and adolescent psychotherapy training. He lectures and undertakes clinical and organisational consultancy in the UK and abroad, with a particular interest in working with staff teams who manage, contain and treat the more disturbing and challenging patients and offenders often cared for in secure hospital and prison settings. He is the author of over 35 journal articles and book chapters and the editor and co-editor of five books, including ‘Lectures on Violence, Perversion and Delinquency’ (2007), co-edited with David Morgan.

Richard Davies

Richard Davies Bsc, MA, CQSW, MBPF was a consultant adult psychotherapist until his retirement from the NHS in 2009. He now continues a private practice and consultancy service in Devon. He began at the Clinic in 1982 as senior clinical lecturer in social work, later becoming principal adult psychotherapist. He treated people who suffered from delinquency, sexual deviation and violence. He consulted to several London prisons as well as special hospitals and secure units. He created courses for probation officers and other disciplines who wanted a psychoanalytic perspective in their work with people suffering from forensic difficulties; some of these courses continue today. He is the editor of ‘Stress in Social Work’ and the author of many journal articles and book chapters. He is a member of the Psychoanalytic Section of the British Psychotherapy Foundation. He is a training therapist for the Severnside Institute of Psychotherapy in Bristol and currently, for the BPF.

Dr Rob Hale

Rob Hale is a key figure from the history of the Tavistock and Portman and worked for both clinics. As Director of the Portman he worked closely with Anton Obholzer on the joining of the two clinics into an NHS trust.

Rob Hale trained originally in psychiatry and psychoanalysis and held a research post at St Mary’s Hospital in London where, for five years, he worked closely with people who had attempted suicide. Hale has treated suicidal patients in long-term psychotherapy and since 1980 has worked at the Portman Clinic and the Tavistock Clinic.

His initial clinical interest was in self-destructive acts moving to perverse acts, particularly of those individuals who seek help for paedophilia. This clinical experience has provided the basis for the consultative work, both clinical and organisational, in other institutions, starting with his work in drug dependency. He spent significant time working with medium and high secure hospitals as an external consultant for the clinical staff and managers of those institutions.

In the early 1980s as Director of the Portman Rob worked closely with Alexis Brook on the Hampstead Health Authority and were involved with presenting evidence to the Seymour Commission. Thanks to input from the Portman, the Seymour Report (1985) found that psychotherapy had a continuing role to play in the NHS. After Alexis stepped down Rob working closely with Anton Obholzer, extensively lobbying the Houses of Parliament and getting the media on side to build support for the two institutions.

In the late 1980s Rob joined the Tavistock Clinic and served as our second Dean from 1987 to 1994.

In 1994 Rob Hale took over leadership of the Portman again, when Mervyn Glasser retired. Back at the Portman, Rob worked closely with Anton Obholzer to prepare a joint bid for the two clinics to become an NHS trust and in 1994, as part of the fourth wave of applications they successfully became the Tavistock and Portman NHS Trust. Anton Obholzer became Chief Executive of the new trust and Tony Vinehall, previously of Unilever, became the Chair of the Trust Board.

:A brief history of education and training at the Tavistock and Portman

:The Portman Clinic: An historical sketch

Donald Campbell

Donald Campbell trained as a child psychotherapist and worked at the Portman Clinic for over 30 years, becoming principal psychotherapist and chairman. He is a training and supervising analyst and past president of the British Psychoanalytic Society and former secretary general of the International Psychoanalytical Association. He has written on the subjects of violence, suicide, child sexual abuse, adolescence, doubt and horror film monsters.

Chris Lucas

Christopher James Lucas (1926 to 2017) served as general duty medical officer to the Coldstream Guards, the Guards Training Depot, and the King’s Troop of the Royal Horse Artillery during his national service from 1950 to 1952. He subsequently trained in general medicine and neurology at University College Hospital and in general psychiatry at St George’s Hospital, London. He became director and psychiatric adviser at University College London’s health centre in 1959, a post he held for the next 20 years. During this time, he undertook psychoanalytic training at the Institute of Psychoanalysis and trained in group psychotherapy. At UCL he was involved in counselling services for students and published several papers on students’ mental health. From 1978 to 1979 he was president of the British Student Health Association. From 1979 to 1986 Chris was a consultant psychotherapist at London’s Portman Clinic. He died after a short illness in 2017.

Dr Mervyn Glasser

Mervin ‘Chips’ Glasser (1928 – 2000) was born in Johannesburg and read psychology at the University of Witwatersrand. He left South Africa in 1952 to study psychoanalysis in London graduating from Westminster hospital medical school in 1958. He qualified as an associate member at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis in 1963 and subsequently taught there, joining the Portman Clinic in the early 1970s. Glasser was best known for his writing and teaching on the origins of delinquency and perversion. His research included the development of the ‘core complex’. At the Portman, Glasser also organised international conferences that brought in academics from all over the world; built links with the Institute of Psychiatry’s forensic department, the Tavistock Clinic and the Home Office; with academia, particularly the LSE; with London hospitals, the police, the prison service and probation service.

:The Portman Clinic: An historical sketch

Adam Limentani

Adam Limentani (1913 – 1994) was born in Rome to an established Jewish family and emigrated to England in 1938 because of the introduction of racist laws in Italy. During the war he worked in the Emergency Medical Service in Mill Hill, where the clinical side of Maudsley Hospital had been evacuated and where he met Aubrey Lewis. After the war Limentani worked at Shenley Hospital, where he practiced as a psychiatrist and developed his interest in psychotherapy. In 1962 he obtained a post at the Portman Clinic. There he became one of the foremost contemporary exponents on the psychoanalytic approaches to sexual deviancy and criminality. Many of Limentani’s papers reflect his experience of treating patients at the Portman Clinic. He became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1959. Alter twelve years devoted to training activities, he became president of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1974. He died in 1994 after a long illness.

Dr David Eder

David Eder (1865–1936) was a British physician and early psychoanalyst. He studied medicine at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London and following the completion of his studies he travelled through the United States, South Africa and Bolivia. Eder returned to London in 1900 and went into general practice. Even before the war Eder had become interested in the psychoanalytical theories emerging from Europe and writing as M. D. Eder he provided English-language translation for works by Carl Jung (Diagnostic Association Studies and The Theory of Psychoanalysis) and Sigmund Freud (Dream Psychology: Psychoanalysis for Beginners and On Dreams). It was a difficult time for psychoanalysis and it is said that the entire medical audience silently walked out of his 1911 talk on sexual aetiology. During World War 1 Eder joined the British Army, serving in the Royal Army Medical Corps. He was appointed medical officer in charge of the psycho-neurological department in Malta and later wrote about his experiences in his book: ‘War-Shock, The Psycho-neuroses in War: Psychology and Treatment’. In 1930, with Ernest Jones, he became a founder member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. In 1932 he was elected president of the medical section of the British Psychological Society. Along with his sister-in-law Barbara Low, Eder was an early member of the ISTD serving on its Scientific Committee.

Dr Aubrey Lewis

Sir Aubrey Lewis (1900–1975) was the outstanding psychiatrist in the middle of the 20th century and his name will always be connected with the Maudsley Hospital. Before Aubrey Lewis came to the Maudsley he had received his psychiatric education in two main schools: Adolf Meyer at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Karl Bonhoeffer at the Charité. He was also with the ISTD in the early days of the Psychopathic Clinic. Lewis became Clinical Director of the Maudsley in 1936. In 1946 Lewis was appointed as professor of psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital. Lewis’ tutorial style required evidence and reasoning expressed lucidly and economically. Failure to reach his standard resulted in memorably uncomfortable moments for his post-graduate students. He went on to be the first professor of psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, London (now part of King’s College London), and is credited with being a driving force behind the flowering of British psychiatry after World War II. The majority of the first professors of psychiatry in the UK had initially trained and worked with him. Lewis was a major figure in British psychiatry. He had a questioning sceptical temperament and was sometimes thought to teach and practice an unduly nihilistic form of psychiatry, paying too little attention to the opportunities for psychotherapeutic treatment. Somewhat unusually for an academic of his stature Lewis never published a book, preferring to write articles.

Mr Adrian and Mrs Karen Stephen

Adrian Stephen (1883 – 1948) was a member of the Bloomsbury Group (he was the brother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell), an author and psychoanalyst. Adrian attended Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took an ordinary degree in law and history. In 1914 Stephen married Karin Costelloe, a philosophy graduate, by then fellow of Newnham College and expert on Henri Bergson. During World War 1 the couple were conscientious objectors and spent the war working on a dairy farm. They became interested in the work of Sigmund Freud and after the war trained as doctors in order to practice psychoanalysis. They both went into analysis with James Glover (Edward Glover’s brother) and when he died, in 1926, Karin continued with Sylvia Payne and Adrian with Ella Freeman Sharpe. They both qualified in 1927 and she worked in a psychiatric hospital, was accepted as an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1927 becoming a full member in 1931. Stephen entered private practice as a psychoanalyst. The two of them became staff members of the Psychopathic Clinic around the time of its inception. LateaKarin gave the first lecture course on psychoanalysis ever given at Cambridge University, which formed the basis of her medical textbook ‘Psychoanalysis and medicine’ (1933). Karin suffered from deafness and manic depression. After her husband died in 1948, her health deteriorated and she committed suicide in 1953.

Kate Friedländer née Frankl

Kate Friedlander (1902–1949) was a criminologist and psychiatrist. She was the daughter of middle-class Hungarian Jewish parents. After completing her general medical studies in Innsbruck, she moved to Berlin where she specialized in mental and nervous diseases. She also trained as a psychoanalyst and worked as a specialist at the juvenile court in Berlin. In 1933, after the Reichstagsbrand, she migrated to London, becoming an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1933 and a full member in 1938. Focussing on the problem of juvenile delinquency, Kate Friedländer worked at the ISTD under the leadership of Edward Glover and developed a systematic psychoanalytic theory of the causes of delinquency. Friedlander’s main achievements were in the application of psychoanalysis to the theoretical and practical problems of dissocial character formation. Her book ‘The Psycho-Analytical Approach to Juvenile Delinquency’ (1947) is an important contribution to the understanding and treatment of juvenile delinquents. In this book she describes delinquency as stemming from a latent neglect structure: strong unmodified drives, a weak ego, which is dominated by pleasure principle, and an non-independent super-ego, which becomes manifest under the influence of negative environmental conditions. Unlike the neurotic, who gets substitutive satisfaction by the use of the imagination, the drive impulse of the antisocial character leads to a criminal act. Other than criminology she devoted much of her life to child guidance work for the elimination of unhappiness among children (in cooperation with Anna Freud). She wrote many papers, most of which dealt with the emotional development of the child and were aimed at preventing juvenile delinquency and antisocial wayward behavior in general. She died at the early age of 46 of lung cancer.

Marjorie Franklin

Marjorie Franklin was born on 17 Dec 1887. After basic medical training, she went to New York, to specialize in psychiatry under Adolf Meyer, and became interested in psychoanalysis in the mid 1920s travelling to Vienna. On returning to London she helped established the ISTD. In the 1930s she set up Q Camps for maladjusted men and boys and was honorary secretary of the Q Camps Committee. She developed a therapeutic concept, which she called ‘Planned Environment Therapy’ (PET), and tried it out at the Q Camps. Her interest in anti-social behaviour led to her long-term involvement with the Howard League for Penal Reform. She was also a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and founder of the Planned Environment Therapy Trust. She died in 1975.

Melitta Schmideberg née Klein

Melitta Klein (1904–1983) was the oldest child of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein. In 1910 the family moved to Budapest, where Melanie Klein began to analyse Melitta and her brothers. In 1921 Melanie Klein went to Berlin, where Melitta Klein joined her, to study medicine. In Berlin Melitta met and married the Austrian psychoanalyst Walter Schmideberg. She graduated in 1927 and presented her thesis in 1929, the same year she started her psychoanalytic training with Karen Horney, qualifying in 1931. With the rise of fascism the Schmidebergs emigrated to London and from 1930 Melitta Schmideberg attended the scientific meetings of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS) and went into analysis with Edward Glover. During her analysis with Glover she became estranged from her mother. She began to attack her in public and questioned the empiric basis of the Kleinian views. Her desire to become independent from her mother resulted in an unforgiving hatred. Along with Glover she helped establish the ISTD and Portman Clinic. In 1945 Melitta Schmideberg went to New York, where she worked with juvenile delinquents and helped to found the Association for the Psychiatric Treatment of Offenders in 1950. She devoted herself to the treatment and reintegration of delinquents and founded in 1957 the International Journal of Offender Therapy.

Barbara Low

Barbara Low was born in 1874 in London. She was the youngest of eleven children and her father, a participant in the Hungarian revolution of 1848, had fled to England after its failure. Barbara Low studied at University College London, qualifying as a teacher and taught for several years, lecturing in education, literature, and history. She was also a member of the Labour Party and the left-wing intellectual Fabian Society. Barbara Low was introduced to psychoanalysis by her sister’s husband David Eder, who was a co-founder of the London Psychoanalytical Society. In 1919 she was the only female founding member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. She was analysed by Hanns Sachs in Berlin and trained with Ernest Jones in London. She was especially interested in the application of psychoanalysis to education and published a number of papers on this. She was a staunch supporter of Anna Freud, whose ‘Einführung in die Psychoanalyse für Pädagogen’ she translated into English. Barbara was an early member of the ISTD, working as a lecturer and therapist. She was also a co-director of Imago Publishing Company. In her book ‘Psycho-Analysis: A Brief Account of the Freudian Theory’ (1920) Low introduced the concept of the Nirvana principle (Nirwanaprinzip) for the organism’s tendency to keep stimuli to a minimum level – the term was immediately taken up by Freud in ‘Beyond the Pleasure Principle’. She died in 1955.

Emanuel Miller

Emanuel Miller (1892–1970) was a British psychiatrist who is best known for his work on child psychology. He was a founder member of the ISTD and the Portman Clinic and joined the Children’s Department of the Tavistock Clinic in 1933, becoming its head. He also worked closely with JR Rees to prepare for World War 2, gathering together the experiences of World War 1 into the book The neuroses in war. During the war itself, he joined other Tavistock members in ‘the invisible college’ and worked on the War Office Selection Boards.

Emanuel Miller was born in Whitechapel, the son of Lithuanian Jewish parents who had emigrated to this country. Emanuel went to St. John’s College, Cambridge as an exhibitioner and read the natural sciences. After Cambridge he went to the London Hospital, where he acquired the diploma of the conjoint board and then undertook a diploma of psychological medicine at Cambridge University. From his early twenties he could call himself a medical psychologist, but for the next twenty years he divided his time between the study of mental disorder and the acquisition of qualifications. An interest in child psychiatry and child guidance stands out very clearly in his career. He was honorary director of the East London Child Guidance Clinic, the first institution of its kind in Britain, founded in 1926; director of the Child Guidance Unit of the West End Hospital for Nervous Diseases (where, thanks to Emanuel Miller, the Psychopathic Clinic had its first consulting room); a member of the Child Guidance Council; chairman of the Association of Child Psychiatry and later the founder and editor of the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Probably his most important post was that of physician to the Maudsley Hospital. The doctor and playwright Jonathan Miller was his son.

Hermann Mannheim

Hermann Mannheim (1889–1974) was born in Berlin and educated at Munich, Freiburg, Strasbourg and Koenigsberg Universities. By the outbreak of war he had passed his second and final law examination, qualifying him to become a barrister or a magistrate. During World War 1 he served in the German artillery. After the war he went on to be a lecturer and professor in the faculty of law at Berlin University, and a judge in criminal courts and the court of appeal in Berlin from 1923 to 1933. Promotion was rapid. Mannheim was quickly appointed a judge, first in the lower courts, then in the superior court of the district court of Berlin, where he took part in and presided over a large number of difficult criminal trials in what was the busiest criminal court in Germany. Mannheim gave up his professorship when the Nazis came to power and moved to London in 1934. At the time of Mannheim’s arrival, criminology was not a recognized subject in the universities and the scientific study of crime was in its infancy. Soon after settling in London he made contact with men such as Dr J. J. Mallon, Sir Basil Henriques, and H. E. Norman, the then secretary of the National Association of Probation Officers, and also with the ISTD,

Estela Welldon

Dr Estela V. Welldon MD DSc (Hon) FRC PSYCH was born in 1939 in Mendoza, Argentina and is an Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist in Psychotherapy at Tavistock and Portman NHS Clinics. She is the founder and honorary elected president for Life of the International Association for Forensic Psychotherapy; fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatrists; honorary doctor in sciences Oxford Brookes University; honorary consultant psychiatrist in psychotherapy at Tavistock Portman NHS Clinics; honorary member of the American Psychoanalytic Association for Psychoanalysis. She is a member of the BAP, the CBP, IGA, AGP, IAGP and honorary member of the Society of Couple Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists, Tavistock Clinic. She works privately as a psychoanalytical psychotherapist, and lectures worldwide. She is the author of many papers and chapters on group analytical psychotherapy and forensic psychotherapy and the following books: ‘Mother Madonna Whore, the Idealisation and Denigration of Motherhood’ (1988); ‘Sadomasochism’ (2002); ‘Playing with Dynamite: A Personal Approach to the Understanding of Perversions, Violence and Criminality’ (Karnac, 2011) and was the main editor of ‘A Practical Guide to Forensic Psychotherapy’ (1997).

:The Portman Clinic: An historical sketch

John Rickman

John Rickman was born in 1891 to a Quaker family on Rose Hill, Dorking. He took natural sciences at Cambridge University, also winning a rowing Blue while he was there. He completed his medical degree at St Thomas’s Hospital in London and qualified in 1916.

During World War 1 he applied for exemption from conscription as a conscientious objector. He joined the Friends War Victims Relief Service and was sent to Buzuluk, in the Samara Oblast province of South Russia, where he provided medical and relief services to refugees from the war. While there Rickman married American social worker, Lydia Cooper Lewis. Their civil marriage certificate was the first in the area to be issued after the October revolution in 1917. When civil war broke out the newly-weds embarked on a three month journey to escape via the trans-Siberian railway to Vladivostock, returning to Dorking via the United States.

He then studied psychiatry at Cambridge. In 1919 Rickman went to Vienna to have analysis with Freud. He made many contacts there, including Karl Abraham (1877–1925) and Sándor Ferenczi (1873–1933). He continued with Freud until 1922, when he qualified as a psychoanalyst. In 1928 he travelled to Budapest to have treatment from Ferenczi. It was around this time that Rickman joined the ISTD and Psychopathic Clinic. In 1934 Rickman began an analysis with Melanie Klein that was to continue, intermittently, until 1941 and again for some sessions after the war.

In 1938 Dr Wilfred Bion, who had been working as a psychotherapist at the Tavistock Clinic, asked Rickman to be his training psychoanalyst. This was brought to a premature end by the onset of the World War 2.

At the beginning of 1940 Rickman was sent to Wharncliffe Hospital near Sheffield, where his work attracted considerable interest and admiration from army psychologists and psychiatrists, including Wilfred Bion, who visited him there.

During the Second World War Rickman drafted ideas on what was to become the therapeutic community movement. With the Royal Army Medical Corps he treated soldiers at Northfield Military Hospital near Birmingham and with Wilfred Bion conducted revolutionary experiments that led to developments in the understanding of group behaviour.

At the end of the war Rickman renewed his involvement in the British Psychoanalytical Society and was elected president from 1947 to 1950. After the war he also held board level positions at the Tavistock Clinic, taught there and supported Wilfred Bion with hiss work on groups. He died on 1 July 1951, aged 60.

:The Northfield Experiment: