On 22nd July 1931 Grace Pailthorpe formed the Association for the Scientific Treatment of Criminals (ASTC), which subsequently became the Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency (ISTD).

Along with Grace Pailthorpe the other founders of the ASTC were: Dr M. Hamblin-Smith, Dr David Eder, Dr Edward Glover, Dr James Hadfield, Dr Ernest Jensen and Dr Emanuel Miller. Their general secretary was Victor Neuberg.

The ISTD was the parent organisation of the Portman Clinic, which was initially known as the Psychopathic Clinic.

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